When using the Linux Libertine font family on MacOS, everything is fine with LaTeX, as the MacTeX distribution already includes all relevant files. In case you use third-party tools like Inkscape, you will have to install the font files which is a bit different from what Linux users are used to.
- Go to the sourceforge page of Linux Libertine.
- Download the OTF package.
- On your Mac, open Font Book from the Launchpad.
- In the menu, select Add Font (cmd+o) and select all downloaded OTF files.
Now even applications using XQuartz (inkscape or gimp) have access to the fonts.